It seems counterintuitive to argue that football is in crisis, considering the huge profits clubs around the world have been making. However, that is the premise that underpins this paper on football reform. Despite the vast economic benefits the beautiful game brings to our country, football has been shrouded in controversy, lurching
from allegations of institutional corruption to claims of racism levelled at former international captains. The solution lies in returning to the roots of the game, which made it the most popular pastime in the world.
The prison population currently stands at around 84,000. This constitutes a 100% increase on the 1993 prison population. During this time the rate of reoffending has remained stubbornly high, with about 50% of offenders reoffending within a year of release from prison. The reoffending rate has remained consistent despite a range of initiatives and policies aimed at tackling this problem.
Whilst based in Cheltenham GCHQ evidently operates communications surveillance across both the UK and the wider world. The recent allegations of a GCHQ run listening post at Britain’s German Embassy would seem to support the suggestion that the organisation is involved in collecting data for defending Britain’s interests, in a wider sense than the “What we do” page of the GCHQ website implies, with its focus on the threats faced. Furthermore, it implies a physical geographical extension which is not apparent from the neat division of the services previously attested to.
The most noteworthy aspect of the recent political revolutions in the Arab world is that there is nearly always a failure to suddenly superimpose a democratic style of government based on Western political constitutional foundations onto a set of domestic government institutions. Here, I argue that there is a need to consider the notion of a ‘learning equilibrium’ — to recognise that it takes time for institutions and socio-economic agents to adapt their expectations about the new state of governing such that a stable democratic political environment is generated. I conclude with a generic road-map detailing a general pathway for which this learning equilibrium can be attained.
Written exclusively by students, this paper is uniquely placed to present a broad range of perspectives on issues surrounding young people and alcohol.
This paper argues for a radical shift in the UK’s policy towards the People’s Republic of China (PRC), aiming at a political relationship that transcends the motivation of economic opportunism. It sets out two proposals which present an alternative to the current policy of containment. Instead they promote a relationship of trust and constructive engagement on issues where progress has been lacking for too long.
The first proposal calls on the UK government to recommit itself to the democratic development of its former colony of Hong Kong and to establish a Hong Kong Affairs Liaison Committee as a platform for exchange on this issue. Within this low-key framework of dialogue, the UK should negotiate a quid pro quo which would see the Chinese government put forward a credible roadmap to democracy in Hong Kong along the lines of its 2007 commitment. In exchange, the United Kingdom would lead the European Union in lifting the 1989 arms embargo on the PRC.
Going beyond the issue of Hong Kong, the second proposal calls on the UK to lead an ambitious and creative international effort to resolve the ongoing dispute in the South China Sea by establishing three nature reserves around the disputed Spratly, Paracel and Pratas islands. A focus on conservation and the creation of a sustainable maritime management system will serve as a precedent of cooperation while effectively suspending the sovereignty dispute.
The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is often eclipsed by the overriding demands of handling communicable diseases in the developing world. Developing countries are faced with a double burden of disease as they begin to face an increasing encumbrance from NCDs during an earlier phase of economic development than their high-income counterparts. The solution is of course, in the timeworn policy: prevention. However, unlike communicable diseases, the risk factors for NCDs are often flared up by lifestyle choices and change must therefore come from within the people.
This paper recommends that in order to achieve maximum return on investment, governments must recognise that changes in lifestyle are best achieved through a marketing approach, where the environment is modified in ways that make healthier actions the easier choices. This marketing model has been analysed under the 4P framework of marketing, looking at a variety of existing interventions around the world, and thereby constructing novel and exciting policy recommendations.
This report offers some suggestions directed at how quality of service can be improved in the mutual fund industry, how competition can be made more effective and thereby the results for customers as well as successful fund managers improved. It does this by firstly conducting a broad narrative analysis of the many issues which have affected the industry in the past and which still affect it. It then makes a series of policy recommendations setting out what each party involved can do to contribute to better overall outcomes.
How does this market work, and as importantly, in what ways is it not working as well as it could? What are the reasons for this? What is its history, and structure? To what extent is the power of consumer choice the driver of services delivered? Where this is lacking, what are the fundamental reasons for this? What is the effect, both good and bad, of current regulation? What is the range of business structures used and what is their history? Why is it important for fund managers to be able to trust their clients? What should investors look for in a fund manager’s description of themselves? How, and by whom, can consumer understanding of “what active management actually is” be best maintained?
These are some of the questions dealt with in this wide-ranging, narrative, non-technical and discursive report which also makes a series of policy recommendations in the following areas:
The Health and Social Care Act 2012 comes into full force from April 2013. In many ways a controversial piece of legislation, it heralds considerable changes, not least to the governance and practice of Public Health. The changes are designed to enable the health and social care systems to adapt to the shift in the demographic profile of society and the changing prevalence of different types of disease. However, in the area of Public Health in particular, do these changes go far enough?
This paper briefly discusses some of the changes coming in and the challenges that we face as a society if we are to tackle the major limitations to our health. Regardless of the specific health issue in question, as our knowledge of health and disease grows, we are starting to understand in more detail the complex ways in which many factors can interact to contribute to our health. To tackle issues rooted in such complex interactions a combined effort is needed across areas of society which are currently distinct and, in many
The major conceptual change that is still required to make a significant impact on health improvement in the future is to view the health of the public from an integrated perspective. Combining the knowledge and skills from a wide range of disciplines and sectors from central government right through to individual local communities will yield more progress than any one person, profession or sector working alone.
This paper therefore begins to outline some of the ways in which such an integrated perspective might be practically constructed and woven into society at all levels. It is by no means an exhaustive list of possibilities and indeed, the hope is that future thinking might follow the philosophy of the paper, adding to the practical suggestions for how this might be realised.